This assessment has been produced upon the request of the countries of the Ferghana Valley – Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan – . It shows how the ‘Environment and Security’ initiative has helped identify both environmental threats to regional security and opportunities for cross-border dialogue. We hope that this assessment will contribute to a better understanding of linkages between environment and security, as well as strengthen the environmental dimension of conflict prevention efforts in this crucial part of Central Asia.